The main tool for fighting uncontrolled inflation is for the government and local monetary authorities to reduce the money supply.
Since most easily accessed money is in the form of bank deposits, the most efficient way for a central bank to control the money supply is by regulating
- bank lending and
- reserve requirements.
Essentially, when banks have more money to lend to customers, the economy grows And when banks reduce their lending the economy slows.
The reason central bank monetary policy works so well is because of the multiplier effect.