RACI and ARMI responsibility assignment matrix for GRPI teamwork

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In teamwork (work done by more than one person) with clear goals, roles, processes, and interpersonal relationship (GRPI), such as a DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) project or a DMADV (define, measure, analyse, design, verify) project, the responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) can be used to clearly define the role and responsibility of each of the members in such teamwork.



One of the commonly used responsibility assignment matrix is the RACI matrix, which breaks down the teamwork into tasks, and map out who is responsible, who is accountable, who should be consulted, and who must kept informed for each of the tasks.

R - Responsible
  • The person who is assigned to carry out that particular task (the doer).
  • Each task must have at least 1 responsible person.
  • A task can have many responsible persons.
A - Accountable
  • The person who holds ownership of the task, and is responsible for its success or failure.
  • That person is authorized to make final decision on the task.
  • That person has the power to accept the completion of the task.
  • Each task can only have 1 accountable person.
 C - Consulted
  • Person who can be asked to provide opinion or input about the task while it is being worked on.
  • Normally a subject matter expert (SME).
  • The consultation should occur before decision or action is taken.
  • Each task can have either none, one, or more than one consulted persons.
  • If there are more than one, they should not be too many.
I - Informed
  • Person who needs to be kept informed that a decision or action has been taken.
  • Each task can have either none, one, or more than one persons to be kept informed.
  • If there are more than one, they should not be too many.
The RACI model can be extended to RASCI or RASIC by including a support role.

S - Support
  • Person who is able to help Responsible person in getting the task done.
  • The person possesses resource that can be shared out, or taking part in a supporting role.
  • Each task can have either none, one, or more than one support persons.

Beside RACI, the ARMI is another model that serves the similar purpose to define the level of support assigned to each stakeholders.

A - Approver
  • The person who sign-off a milestone and approve to move on towards the next milestone.
R - Resource
  • Persons who have the expertise or skillsets that are required in the project.
M - Member
  • Persons who are the project team member.
I - Interested Party
  • Persons who need to be informed about up-to-date status along the project.
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